1 Introduction (Richard Coles).
1.2 Packaging developments – an historical and future perspective.
1.3 Role of packaging for enhanced sustainability of food supply.
1.4 Definitions and functions of packaging.
1.5 Packaging strategy.
1.6 Packaging design and development.
2 Food Biodeterioration and Methods of Preservation (Gary S. Tucker).
2.2 Agents of food biodeterioration.
2.3 Food preservation methods.
3 Packaged Product Quality and Shelf Life (Helen Brown, James Williams and Mark Kirwan).
3.2 Factors affecting product quality and shelf life.
3.3 Chemical/biochemical processes.
3.4 Microbiological processes.
3.5 Physical and physico-chemical processes
3.6 Migration from packaging to foods.
4 Logistical Packaging for Food Marketing Systems (Diana Twede and Bruce Harte).
4.2 Functions of logistical packaging.
4.3 Logistics’ activity-specific and integration issues
4.4 Distribution performance testing
4.5 Packaging materials and systems
5 Metal Packaging (Bev Page, Mike Edwards and Nick May).
5.1 Overview of market for metal cans.
5.2 Container performance requirements
5.3 Container designs.
5.4 Raw materials for can-making.
5.5 Can-making processes
5.6 End-making processes.
5.7 Coatings, film laminates and inks.
5.8 Processing of food and drinks in metal packages.
5.9 Shelf life of canned foods
5.10 Internal corrosion
5.11 Stress corrosion cracking
5.12 Environmental stress cracking corrosion of aluminium alloy beverage can ends
5.13 Sulphur staining
5.14 External corrosion.
6 Packaging of Food in Glass Containers (Peter Grayhurst and Patrick J. Girling).
6.2 Attributes of food packaged in glass containers.
6.3 Glass and glass container manufacture.
6.4 Closure selection.
6.5 Thermal processing of glass packaged foods.
6.6 Plastic sleeving and decorating possibilities
6.7 Strength in theory and practice.
6.8 Glass pack design and specification
6.9 Packing – due diligence in the use of glass containers.
6.10 Environmental profile
6.11 Glass as a marketing tool.
7 Plastics in Food Packaging (Mark J. Kirwan, Sarah Plant and John W. Strawbridge).
7.2 Manufacture of plastics packaging
7.3 Types of plastic used in packaging.
7.4 Coating of plastic films – types and properties
7.5 Secondary conversion techniques.
7.7 Printing and labelling of rigid plastic containers
7.8 Food contact and barrier properties.
7.9 Sealability and closure.
7.10 How to choose
7.11 Retort pouch
7.12 Environmental and waste management issues.
8 Paper and Paperboard Packaging (M.J. Kirwan).
8.2 Paper and paperboard – fibre sources and fibre separation (pulping).
8.3 Paper and paperboard manufacture.
8.4 Packaging papers and paperboards.
8.5 Properties of paper and paperboard.
8.6 Additional functional properties of paper and paperboard.
8.7 Design for paper and paperboard packaging.
8.8 Package types.
8.10 Environmental profile.
8.11 Carbon footprint.
9 Active Packaging (B.P.F. Day and L. Potter).
9.2 Oxygen scavengers
9.3 Carbon dioxide scavenger and emitters.
9.4 Ethylene scavengers.
9.5 Ethanol emitters.
9.6 Moisture absorbers
9.7 Flavour/odour absorbers.
9.8 Lactose and cholesterol removers.
9.9 Anti-oxidant release.
9.10 Temperature-controlled packaging
9.11 Regulatory issues, consumer acceptability and equipment considerations.
10 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (Michael Mullan and Derek McDowel)
Section A: Map gases packaging materials and equipment.
10.A1.1 Historical development.
10.A2 Gaseous environment
10.A2.1 Gases used in MAP
10.A2.2 Effect of the gaseous environment on the activity of bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
10.A2.3 Effect of the gaseous environment on the chemical biochemical and physical properties of foods.
10.A2.4 Physical spoilage.
10.A3 Packaging materials.
10.A3.1 Main plastics used in MAP.
10.A3.2 Selection of plastic packaging materials.
10.A4 Modified packaging atmosphere machines.
10.A4.1 Chamber machines.
10.A4.2 Snorkel machines.
10.A4.3 Form-fill-seal machines.
10.A4.4 Preformed trays.
10.A4.5 Modification of the pack atmosphere.
10.A4.8 Additional operations
10.A5 Quality assurance of map.
10.A5.1 Heat seal integrity.
10.A5.2 Measurement of transmission rate and permeability in packaging films.
10.A5.3 Determination of headspace gas composition.
Section B: Main food types.
10.B1 Raw red meat.
10.B2 Raw poultry
10.B3 Cooked, cured and processed meat products
10.B4 Fish and fish products.
10.B5 Fruits and vegetables.
10.B6 Dairy products
11 Bioplastics (Jim Song, Martin Kay and Richard Coles).
11.3 Bioplastics and carbon.
11.4 Bioplastics – overview of material types.
11.5 Waste management options for bioplastics.
11.6 Bioplastics – challenges for a growing market